Peer Review Process & Publication Ethics


Authors' Responsibilities:

All authors should declare that their submission is their own original research. However, they must warranty the reality and authenticity of their data. Also, they must declare that their manuscript has not been published elsewhere before, or even submitted and under review in another journal. They are not allowed to use verbatim text of formerly published papers or manuscripts submitted elsewhere. The same research project must not be published in more than one journal. The corresponding author takes primary responsibility for communication with the journal office during all steps. Furthermore, the corresponding author should respond to the editorial office and should cooperate with any requests from the journal after publication and actively participate in the peer review process as well as provide an erratum. Our Journal does not allow to add or delete authors or changing the orders of authors following the final acceptance. Acknowledgment should be clearly declared in all submissions. References should be stated numerically based on the order of citation in the Vancouver style. Besides, all the resources that helped to perform their research work should be added clearly.

All conflicts of interest must be mentioned exactly by authors and reviewers. Authors are preferably asked to fill the uniform disclosure form available through

Conflicts of interest include (but are not limited to): Research grants from funding agencies (the research funder and the grant number are required), financial support for educational programs, employment or consultation, position on advisory board or board of directors or other types of management relationships, financial relationships, for example, receiving reimbursements, fees, funding, or salary from an organization that may gain or lose financially by the publication of the article in any way, intellectual property rights (e.g. patents, copyrights and royalties from such rights), holdings of spouse and/or children that may have a financial interest in the work.

All animal studies should follow the Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments (ARRIVE) guidelines. Protecting patient or animal rights under investigation is of great importance. The welfare of animals used for research must be respected.

Authors should adhere to the Declaration of Helsinki in medical research involving human subjects, human material, or human data. Independent local, regional or national review body should approve the study by receiving ethical approval from an ethics committee.

Authors should guarantee the integrity of reported data and answer all comments raised by peer-reviewers during the production process. If the author fails to provide a satisfactory answer to the comments of peer-reviewers, the paper would be rejected. Ethical issues should be completely observed by the authors. All named authors must meet the ICMJE criteria for authorship, take responsibility for the integrity of the work as a whole, and have given final approval for the version to be published. Finally, the corresponding author signs the copyright agreement on behalf of co-authors.

The authors must consider all ethical regulations of ICMJE. An “author” is generally considered to be someone who simultaneously meets the following conditions in authorship criteria include:

"1. Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work, or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work, AND 2. Drafting the work or revising it critically for important intellectual content, AND 3. Final approval of the version to be published, AND 4. Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.”

All participants in a research project should be thoroughly informed about the aims of the study and any possible side effects. Informed written consent should be obtained from all participants or their legal parties, if applicable. Patients’ information should be kept secret and anonymous. Besides, the Journal reserves its right to request the related documents.

The authors should mention a clinical trial registration number of trials in their methods. Reports of randomized clinical trials should present information on all major study elements, including the protocol, assignment of interventions (methods of randomization, concealment of allocation to treatment groups), and the method of masking (blinding), based on the CONSORT guideline. A permission should be obtained by authors for using all copyrighted material including figure or table from another journal. The Journal keeps the right to ask for raw data even after acceptance.


Peer Review Process & Responsibility of the Reviewers:

All submissions undergo a peer-review process based on the following process.

The peer review process from submission to decision is defined as below:

  1. Submission of Manuscript: The corresponding author submits the paper to the journal through the journal management online system or occasionally through email.
  2. Editorial Office Screening: The editorial office checks the paper’s composition and arrangement as well as check the “Similarity Rate”.
  3. Editor-in-Chief Evaluation: The Editor-in-Chief checks that the manuscript is appropriate based on the journal scope as well as novelty and originality of the submission. If not, the paper may be rejected. Note: Articles submitted by the staff and Editor-in-Chief will also be subjected to peer review. These types of papers should be handled by another person of the editorial board (without conflict of interest) and in all processes, those who have a conflict of interest should not be involved. Furthermore, in this case, the editor should be blinded to the reviewers' identity.
  4. Inviting Peer-Reviewers: The editorial office sends invitations to the experts who believes would be appropriate reviewers. All submissions undergo a double-blind peer-review process performed by at least two reviewers. Potential reviewers should present their conflict of interest.
  5. The Review is Conducted: The reviewers submit their comments to the editorial office based on a comprehensive checklist, with a recommendation to accept or reject it, or else with a request for minor or major revision. Their comments will be passed to the authors including any relevant reviewer comments. The responses to the comments along with the reviewers’ comments will then be evaluated by the Editor-in-Chief to reach the final decision.

All submissions undergo a confidential peer-review process performed by at least two reviewers. These reviewers are experts in their fields. The final decision could be as accepted, minor or major revision or fast rejection.

  1. Originality, reliability, publication ethics, statistical validity, language, and relevance are important factors for reviewers to accept the submission.
  2. There is no warranty to accept the manuscript if authors are encouraged to revise and resubmit the manuscript.
  3. Rejected manuscripts would not be re-reviewed.

All data in the manuscript regarding subjects must be kept secret by the reviewers. Author(s) may present list names of potential reviewers when submitting a publication, however, the selection remains the editor's decision. No personal criticism of the author should be involved in the review of the manuscript. Knowing the author should not affect the process of reviewing and decision making. Relevant previously published articles must be identified by the reviewer if not cited in the references and constructive comments should present to improve the quality of the article. Also, any similarity regarding data or method with other previous publications must be reported to the Editor-in-Chief although the journal checks the similarity report of the text at the screening level by software. If there is any conflict of interest between the reviewer and the authors or with the research funder, the manuscript must be reviewed by another person.


Editorial Responsibilities: 

Publishing fees or waiver status will not influence editorial decision making.

It is the right of editors to reject or accept a submitted manuscript. Editors must pay attention to readers and the journal scopes when reaching to the final decision. Decision making for publications is based on the manuscript novelty, originality and compatibility of the manuscript to scope of the journal as well as adherence to publication ethics. Also, a corrigendum or retraction must be written if there are errors in the manuscript. If there is a doubt regarding any misconduct in a published or unpublished paper, the editors must ensure to fix the issue appropriately. Any conflicts of interest should be avoided between authors, personnel, editors, and reviewers. Editors should respect the reports raised by whistleblowers about research integrity of publications, investigate the case of research misconduct, and take action as needed in accordance with the ethical guidelines that the journal followed.

Ethics & Malpractice Statement:

We follow the rules and regulations released by the “International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)” including all aspects regarding the conduct of research, how to report research, style, edit, and finally publishing the manuscript. ICMJE rules must be obeyed by all the editorial members, reviewers, and authors. Our Journal has been listed as below in the ICMJE website:

Furthermore, we follow recommendations in the publication ethics of the World Association of Medical Editors (WAME). Please refer to the following link and find the name of our journal: "Journals Whose Editors Belong to WAME"

Hence, it is strongly recommended to read these recommendations prior to submission. If there is any plagiarism or misconduct in data or publication, the editors have the right to inform the author or affiliated institute and act according to the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics).

Conflict of interest happens when there is a personal or financial association between any part in the publication process such as authors, reviewers, or editors of journals which could lead to any disturbance in performing their roles. Therefore, based on the principles of publication ethics, any conflict of interest should be reported in a special format for consideration by the editors.

The editorial board would seek publication misconducts such as redundant (duplicate) publication, plagiarism, fraudulent or fabricated data, changes in authorship, undisclosed conflict of interest, ethical problem with a submitted manuscript, a reviewer who has appropriated an author’s idea or data, and etc.

The Journal established the research integrity committee to audit the publication ethics at the journal content consisted of the experts in the publication ethics. When the research integrity committee faces publication misconduct or ethical misbehavior, the resolving process will be followed by the guidelines issued by the "Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE)". We use the COPE flowcharts for the retraction of a published article.

The use of verbatim texts from other sources without acknowledgment is prohibited is known as plagiarism. The content of all papers must be the original work of authors and must not be plagiarized from other articles. Falsification is the practice of omitting or altering study materials, data, or processes so that the results of the research are no longer accurately reflected. Fabrication is the practice of inventing data or results and reporting them. These research behaviors are fraudulent and extremely alter research integrity.

Images and figures: All images should be original and will be checked for inappropriate manipulation. No specific feature within an image may be enhanced, obscured, moved, removed, or introduced. Any copyrighted material which has been obtained from another published resource can only be re-used if the authors have obtained the official permissions for re-use from the copyright owner. The authors should consider the guidelines provided by the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) when preparing figures and images for publication.

Advertising Policy: We do not accept advertisements.

Archiving: From Spring 2012 to July 2020 in PubMedCentral

Copyright:  This is an open-access Journal. All manuscripts would be distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non-Commercial 4.0 International License which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages if the original work is properly cited.