Paracentral acute middle maculopathy progressing to central retinal artery occlusion following coronavirus disease vaccination: a multimodal imaging report
Medical hypothesis, discovery & innovation in optometry,
Vol. 4 No. 1 (2023),
4 April 2023
AbstractBackground: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccines can cause adverse ocular effects, including vascular insults, acute macular neuroretinopathy, paracentral acute middle maculopathy (PAMM), ophthalmic vein thrombosis, Graves’ disease, arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (A-AION), and nonarteritic AION. Here, we report a case of unilateral PAMM progressing to central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) after COVID-19 vaccination, identified using multimodal imaging.
Case Presentation: A 24-year-old healthy man presented with unilateral progressive blurring of vision in the right eye. He had a recent history of fever without rashes 2 weeks after coronavirus disease vaccination. He was diagnosed with PAMM in the right eye at a local hospital and treated with a tapering dose of oral steroids. At presentation, he showed progressive blurring of vision in the right eye and the best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA) was 20/60. The anterior segment was normal. Fundus examination revealed a pale optic disc with arteriolar attenuation and barrage laser scarring at the inferotemporal periphery. CRAO was diagnosed based on the right eye findings. The patient underwent multimodal imaging, including wide-field fundus photography using Optos® (Optos Carfornia®, Optos Inc., Dunfermline, United Kingdom), multicolor imaging with Spectralis™ (Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Dossenheim, Germany), fundus fluorescence angiography (Heidelberg Retinal Angiograph; Heidelberg Engineering, Inc., Dossenheim, Germany), and optical coherence tomography angiography (ANGIOVUE, OPTOVUE, Inc., Fremont, CA, USA) using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography algorithm. The condition progressed from PAMM to CRAO during the oral steroid treatment course. At the 2-month follow-up, the right eye BCDVA had improved to 20/50, with fundus findings remaining the same as at the previous visit.
Conclusions: This was the first report of a young patient with PAMM presenting with focal vascular occlusion that evolved to global occlusion in the form of CRAO in the absence of systemic vascular risk factors and with a normal coagulation profile. This case suggests that arterial occlusion may exert a temporary effect secondary to COVISHIELD™ vaccination. Randomized controlled trials and case – control studies on the role of vaccination in precipitating thromboembolic events in healthy individuals would provide insight into the causation.
- COVID-19 vaccine AstraZeneca
- paracentral acute middle maculopathy
- central retinal artery occlusion
- hybrid imaging
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