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Use of Fundus Autofluorescence Combined with Optical Coherence Tomography for Diagnose of Geographic Atrophy in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

Nathalie Massamba, Alexandre Sellam, Nathalie Butel, Dimitra Skondra, Violaine Caillaux, Bahram Bodaghi

Abstract


The aim of this study was to demonstrate the sensitivity of Optical coherence tomography (OCT) in detection of geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to exudative age related macular degeneration (AMD). In this retrospective case series study 77 patients (53% female, with mean ± standard deviation [SD] of 82.6±9.3 years) with 97 eyes (45 OS [left eyes]/52 OD [right eyes]) were included. This was a retrospective review of the charts of patients who presented with exudative AMD at the Pitié Salpetrière Hospital, Paris, France, between December 2016 and August 2017 that received intravitreal injections of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapies. At baseline, following biomicroscopy examination, multimodal imaging was performed including, fluorescein angiography (FA), fundus auto-fluorescence (FAF), spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and indocyanine green angiography (ICGA). During the follow-up, SD-OCT with/without FAF and FA were performed for each patient at 6, 12 and 18 months. For investigation of the prevalence of GA in eyes undergoing intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF therapy, FAF and SD-OCT images were qualitatively reviewed by four independent observers (two graders per group). Kappa coefficient of Cohen was calculated to determine agreement between the graders. The kappa coefficient of Cohen, for inter-rater agreement in the evaluation of FAF images was 0.468, indicating a moderate agreement between the first and second raters. Thus, the sensitivity and specificity of FAF for the diagnosis of GA were 70% and 57%, respectively. If atrophy was assessed with SD-OCT image analysis, the kappa coefficient for inter-rater agreement was 0.846, implying an acceptable agreement between both readers. The sensitivity and specificity of SD-OCT were 93% and 58% respectively. In conclusion, SD-OCT image analysis was more sensitive than FAF for identifying GA in patients treated for exudative AMD.


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