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Smartphone-Assisted Glaucoma Screening in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: a Pilot Study

Bilong Yannick, Domngang Noche Christelle, Gebding Gimma Nwanlih, Katte Jean-Claude, Afetane Evina Ted, Kagmeni Gilles, Mbanya Jean Claude, Nilesh Kumar, Ashish Sharma, Sobngwi Eugene


We aimed to determine true and false positives of glaucoma screening, relying solely on photos of the retina, taken with a smartphone. We performed a descriptive and analytical study on patients with type 2 diabetes at the National Obesity Centre, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Participating patients had retinal photography sessions using an iPhone 5s (iOS 10.3.3; Apple, Cupertino, CA) coupled to the Make in India Retinal Camera (MIIRetCam; MIIRetCam Inc., Coimbatore, TN, India). Obtained pictures of the retina were stored and transferred via the internet to an ophthalmologist to assess glaucoma. Selected patients were then invited to undergo a conventional ophthalmological examination to confirm the diagnosis. A total of 395 patients were screened, 39 (including 20 women) were diagnosed with suspicion of glaucoma based on retinal photos, a prevalence rate of 9.87%. The following signs were found; C/D ≥0.5 in 64.1% (25/39), asymmetric C/D >0.2 in 35.9% (14/39), papillary haemorrhage in 10.2% (4/39) and retinal nerve fibre deficiency in 2.5% (1/39). Only 14 of 39 patients with suspicion of glaucoma were examined, giving a lost-to-follow-up rate of 64.1%. Chronic open-angle glaucoma was confirmed in 8 patients (true positives) and absent in 6 patients (false positives). The prevalence of smartphone-detected glaucoma and lost-to-follow-up rates were high. So we need to improve this type of screening, with additional tests like transpalpebral applanation tonometer and the smartphone Frequency Doubling Technique visual field combined with better education of patients to increase their adherence to follow-up.


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