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Ocular Accommodation, Intraocular Pressure, Development of Myopia, and Glaucoma: Role of Ciliary Muscle, Choroid, and Metabolism

Karan R Gregg Aggarwala

Abstract


Ocular accommodation is not just a mechanism for altering curvature of the crystalline lens of the eye, it also enables aqueous humor outflow through the trabecular meshwork, influencing intraocular pressure (IOP). Long term stress on the ciliary muscle from sustained near focusing may initiate myopic eye growth in children and primary open angle glaucoma in presbyopic adults. Multi-factorial studies of ocular accommodation that include measures of IOP, ciliary muscle morphology, anterior chamber depth, and assessment of nutritional intake and metabolic markers may elucidate etiology and novel strategies for management of both myopia and chronic glaucoma. Anatomy of the ciliary fibers from anterior insertion in the fluid drainage pathway to their posterior consanguinity with the vascular choroid, alters ocular parameters such as micro-fluctuations of accommodation and pulsatile ocular blood flow that are driven by cardiac contractions conveyed by carotid arteries. Stretching of the choroid has consequences for thinning of the peripheral retina, sclera and lamina cribrosa—with potential to induce retinal tears and optic nerve cupping. It is hoped that the present synthesis of relevant literature and evidence based speculations, may stimulate additional research conducted clinically oriented scientists, supported by their host institutions. Early metabolic interventions may lead to prevention or reduced severity of myopia and glaucoma. It is hoped that improved quality of life for patients and informed consumers, and reduced disability from visual impairment and blindness may result.


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