Radiation treatment methods in uveal melanoma
Medical Hypothesis, Discovery & Innovation in Ophthalmology,
Vol. 10 No. 1 (2021),
31 May 2021
AbstractBackground: The most frequent primary ocular malignancy in the western world is the uveal melanoma. While it mainly affects Caucasians, it is extremely uncommon among non-Caucasians. Continuous improvement in therapies for local treatment has allowed sparing of the eye, although this approach apparently does not improve survival. The present review aimed to explain different radiotherapy (RT) methods and compare the pros and cons of each method, along with the main complications that may be encountered in the treatment of uveal melanoma.
Methods: Relevant papers published in English between January 2010 and January 2021 were retrieved, reviewed, and screened. Four databases, including PubMed, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and GeneCards, were searched for this purpose.
Results: Forty-one relevant articles were identified. Based on the selected papers, we highlighted the advantages and disadvantages of the different RT methods that have allowed sparing of the eye, even though they have not, as yet, improved survival. We listed a detailed comparison between therapies that allow an educated choice among the different available RT methods.
Conclusions: The choice of uveal melanoma management is determined by the location of the tumor and volume of the extraocular extent. At present, there is no gold standard for the management of all ocular melanomas, and each case should be approached individually. Therefore, classification is a valuable prognostic tool. Many cases in cT3-4 classification categories are treated by primary enucleation and conservative treatment follow-up, while in cT2 and most cT1 classifications (i.e., 3.1–6.0-mm tumor thickness), several forms of RT are used.
Keywords: melanoma of the uvea, choroidal melanoma, radiation therapy, brachytherapy, radioisotope brachytherapy, proton beam therapy, classification
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